The importance of ultra-precision machining technology
The demand for national defense weapon equipment systems has promoted the development of ultra-precision machining technology. This article first introduced the application of ultra-precision machining technology in describing the characteristics of today's advanced weapon system equipment. And on this basis, the development ideas of my country's ultra-precision machining technology and important research topics facing the near future are proposed.
Ultra-precision machining technology is an advanced manufacturing technology developed to meet the needs of modern high technology. It comprehensively applies new achievements in the development of mechanical technology and high-tech technologies such as modern electronics, sensing technology, optics and computers. It is the basis of high-tech fields. Technology plays a vital role in the modernization of national defense science and technology and the construction of the national economy. At the same time, as a basic technology and an important part of modern high technology, it promotes the development of multiple technologies such as semiconductor technology, optoelectronic technology, and materials science. progress. Ultra-precision machining technology has become a key technology for the defense industry to develop modern weapons and equipment, and an important indicator of a country’s scientific and technological level.
1 Recognize the importance of ultra-precision machining technology from the characteristics of several modern wars
Among the several local wars that began in the 1990s, including the first Gulf War (1992), the Kosovo War (1996), the Afghanistan War (1999), and the second Gulf War (2003) that just ended Years), countries around the world have become more and more aware of the impact of high technology on the process of war and its final results. If the past war mainly relied on "quantity" and "speed", now high-tech, intelligent weapons play a decisive role. High-tech and intelligent weapons have the characteristics of high energy efficiency and high precision. The high precision of weapons must inevitably require the high precision of their component parts, so they must be manufactured with high-precision manufacturing technology. It is precisely because the United States and its allies have vigorously developed advanced manufacturing technologies, including ultra-precision processing technology, for many years that have broken through many key manufacturing technologies and developed them into a practical stage. They have the ability to produce precision guidance and night vision equipment. Technical weapons capabilities.
1.1 Massive use of precision-guided weapons and improvement of beyond-horizon attack ability
Compared with the first Gulf War, Kosovo, and Afghanistan wars, the ratio of using precision-guided bombs has increased from 6.8%, 34%, and 66% to nearly 100% this time. From inertial guidance (INS) to laser guidance, digital scene matching end guidance and global satellite positioning system (GPS) guidance methods, of which the most widely used laser guidance used in many laser components such as laser mirrors, laser gyro cavity , Aspheric lenses, etc. require very high accuracy and surface quality, these components will directly affect the guidance accuracy. The high-precision and high-reflectivity plane of the laser mirror, the infrared detection and acceptance required by the digital scene matching end guidance, and the high surface quality plane required by infrared imaging (pound pan mercury) can only be performed by ultra-precision grinding. Mass production of non-spherical mirrors and lenses can be made by CNC ultra-precision turning, grinding and polishing.
Airborne radar is the key to airborne over-the-horizon attack. The manufacturing technology of microwave devices and waveguides has an important impact on radar performance. The quality factors of waveguides are related to their surface roughness and accuracy. Ultra-precision turning technology can be easily guaranteed Requirements to ultimately guarantee the performance of the radar.
1.2 Improvement of night fighting ability
Night warfare is the main means of future air strikes. It can disable many conventional weapons that use optical sighting systems without electronic interference, thereby reducing the casualties of the attacking party. During night battles, you can use the forward-looking infrared detector, laser rangefinder, low-light night vision, and raster TV to clearly see the ground imaging. The use of night vision equipment includes helicopters, loaded vehicles, missiles, personnel, etc. Due to the hot desert climate, in order to facilitate night combat, the United States equipped each soldier with high-definition night vision equipment in this Gulf War, and compared with the previous wars, the weight was greatly reduced (400g), which can be fixed directly On the helmet, which improves the soldier's flexibility in combat. In the above device, infrared imaging is the key technology. Among them, the key element, the mercury crystal, requires high surface quality (low roughness, no scratches, and no metamorphic layer), and special ultra-precision grinding (such as non-contact grinding, Mechanical and chemical grinding, etc. Aspheric curved optical elements are also used in night vision equipment.
1.3 Advances in electronic countermeasure technology
During the Second Gulf War, the US military made extensive use of electronic jamming and anti-radiation missiles to suppress the Iraqi army’s communications and radar, and the Iraqi army completely lost its command, early warning and other capabilities. For the sake of war, the progress of the US military has been extremely smooth. In electronic countermeasures, our own electronic equipment must have excellent anti-interference ability and rapid response ability. Compared with traditional semiconductor silicon, large-scale integrated circuits made of arsenide semiconductors are faster, reliable, and radiation-resistant. Features such as strong ability. The manufacture of arsenide semiconductor devices requires a complete set of epi-precision grinding, grinding, polishing processes and epitaxy equipment. In addition, the U.S. military large-scale integrated circuit must have a complete set of ultra-precision processing and micro-processing equipment.
1.4 Development of military satellite systems
Modern warfare can no longer leave various satellites, such as spy satellites for reconnaissance and satellite networks for GPS. The satellite navigation and positioning systems currently in operation in the world include the Global Positioning System (GPS) of the United States and GLONASS of Russia, both of which provide two types of signals: military code and civilian code, which are mainly used for navigation and positioning, precise guidance of fighter aircraft and combat forces, and Rescue services and other purposes, compared with the first Gulf War, the ratio of GPS guidance to precision guidance has been increased from 10% to 90% of this Gulf War, and compared with laser guidance, GPS guidance has higher accuracy, not Disturbed by external factors such as climatic conditions and other advantages. However, the US and Russia currently only open GPS to civilian codes. If they do not develop their own satellite navigation and positioning systems as soon as possible, they will inevitably be controlled by people in future wars, and they will be passively beaten. China has also begun to develop navigation and positioning satellites in recent years. Change this situation.
Attitude control on the satellite is extremely important. There must be ultra-precision vacuum non-lubricating bearings. The geometric accuracy of the hole axis is in the order of nanometers and the surface roughness is in the order of nanometers. It must be achieved by ultra-precision grinding and grinding. In addition, spy satellites for reconnaissance must be equipped with advanced optical telescope systems, high-resolution TV camera systems, and high-sensitivity infrared imaging systems. Among them, high-precision aspheric lenses, gratings in high-resolution TVs, and infrared imaging Pound pan mercury semiconductor components must be manufactured using ultra-precision processing technology. The GPS system is also required to have anti-jamming, fast response and other characteristics, and it is also inseparable from large-scale integrated circuits made of arsenide semiconductors.
1.5 Military micro weapon system is the future development trend
The micro weapon is a new concept weapon that the United States and other advanced industrial countries began to develop in the 1990s. It is not only a revolutionary innovation in basic theory, design, manufacturing, and measurement testing technology, but also a model for the 21st century war. To have a transformative impact. The connotation of micro weapon technology based on micro, nano, and micro electro mechanical system technology is: according to the special functions and characteristics of micro weapons, the application of micro electro mechanical system (MEMS), computer, perception, control and other advanced technologies, through software and hardware The interface is integrated into the opto-mechanical integration technology of micro and small weapon systems.
The types of micro and small weapons mainly include micro aerial vehicles, micro and small underwater unmanned vehicles, micro and small military robot technology, and micro and small reconnaissance sensor systems. Microminiature weapons have the following important functions: Microminiature unmanned weapons are particularly suitable for use in urban and harsh environments (such as nuclear, biological, etc.) due to their small size, good concealment, fast response, good mobility, strong survivability, and low cost. , Chemical battlefield, etc.) local war.
Due to the development of micro and small weapon systems, the application of many non-silicon materials and other structural materials can not meet the requirements only by traditional (lithography mask, electroforming, LIGA, etc.) MEMS processing technology, and ordinary precision processing cannot Because of the requirements of scale and precision, some non-silicon structural materials can be processed by using the characteristics of ultra-precision processing technology to meet the requirements of use.